Virtually Here: The Age of Cyber Warfare

Dublin Core


Virtually Here: The Age of Cyber Warfare


McAfee commissioned Good Harbor Consulting to research and write this report. The report was prepared by Paul B. Kurtz, a recognized cyber security expert who served in senior positions on the White House’s National Security and Homeland Security Councils under U.S. Presidents Clinton and Bush, and David W. DeCarlo, with the support of Stacy Simpson. The team interviewed over 20 experts in international relations, national and Internet security from around the world. The team assessed the expert's opinions on the definition of cyber war, its impact on the private sector and the priority of issues for public discussion.

The report notes that people disagree about the use of the term "cyberwar." The authors do not wish to "hype or stoke unwarranted fear," but they show that cyber attacks are increasing. The report also concludes that attacks are more like political conflict than crime. Similar to the Cold War, people are likening the amping up of cyber capabilities to a "cyber arms race." 

Similar to many security reports, Kurtz provides examples of past cyber attacks. He also provides criteria for what constitutes an act of cyber war and includes a section of "the nexus between cyber crime and cyber war." 

In terms of content, this report provides a thorough foundation for understanding contemporary cyber issues. Even though Kurtz addresses that the term "cyberwar" may be exaggerated, the report does seem to support the belief that future cyberwar is inevitable. 

The Sophos Security Threat Report compliments McAfee's study because it provides a less critical look at cyberwar, but also provides more examples of cyber attacks.


Stacy Simpson (no biography available)







Paul B. Kurtz, "Virtually Here: The Age of Cyber Warfare," in Cyberwar Resources Guide, Item #129, (accessed August 7, 2022).